Scientists of Stenfordsky university have published article in which transformation of cells of skin of a mouse directly in cages predecessors nervous which represent three main types of cages in the central nervous system is described in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS): neurons, астроциты and олигодендроциты, Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News reports.
Researchers thus managed to bypass an intermediate stage of stem cells.
According to the head of work Marius Verniga (Marius Wernig), "the received results and their therapeutic potential have made it with colleagues tremble".
"We have shown that the skin grown up from cages (фибробластов) nervous cages in a brain of a mouse are integrated and make the protein necessary for transfer of an electric signal between neurons. It is important, because we use mice as models for studying of diseases of a brain of the person", - explains Vernig.
In the experiments stenfordsky scientists brought in laboratory lines of germinal cages of mice a virus with three factors of a transcription (Brn2, Sox2 and FoxG1) which level in cages predecessors of nervous cages is quite high. Three weeks later every tenth cell of skin has got external and functional signs of a nervous cage predecessor.
Researchers have confirmed presence of cages predecessors of nervous cages as in vitro ("in a test tube"), and in vivo (in an organism of animals).
In vitro has been shown that in the transformed cages the same genes, as in usual nervous cages predecessors are active, and they have the same form that cages predecessors. Skin of a cage predecessors transformed from a cage have given rise to different types of nervous cages, in particular, астроцитам and олигодендроцитам.
In experiences with animals scientists brought the transformed cages in a brain of newborn mice of the special line. It were rodents at whom the myelin layer protecting nervous fibres could not be developed. Ten weeks later after change new cages were differentiated in олигодендроциты thanks to which the myelin cover of nervous fibres is formed necessary for normal function of nervous system.
Cages predecessors of neurons, according to experts, can find wide application in biomedical researches as they can be cultivated in a large number both for transplantation, and for screening of drugs.
In former similar experiences formation of cages of nervous system from cells of skin was preceded by a stage of stem, to be exact, plyuripotentny cells which can turn into all types of cages of an organism. Nervous cages received reprogramming of cells of skin by means of several factors of a transcription among which there were also that activate онкогены.
To show not only possibility and efficiency, but also safety of similar conversion of cells of skin of the person, according to Marius Verniga, "it is necessary to work much".