The fungus of nails is the very widespread disease which is transferring from the person to the person at sharing of footwear, in pools, baths, sports halls, shower, pedicure salons and other public places. The mushroom parasite which has lodged on skin is capable to make the life miserable of any. Especially there are a lot of efforts and chagrin causes defeat of feet and nails standing. The women who have become the victim of such fungus, the outer side of a question especially frightens: if the nail has turned yellow or has turned black, has started to exfoliate or be bent, beautiful open sandals any more will not put on. Meanwhile, according to doctors, an aesthetic problem here it is far not main, after all it is a question of a serious disease which needs long treatment.
Onikhomikoz - fungoid defeat of a nail which is called, as a rule, by fungi dermatophytes of Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale or Trichophyton tonsurans. It is observed at patients with an epidermofitiya of feet (дерматомикоз), rubromikozy (epidermis defeat), by a chronic trikhofitiya and favusy («парша», mainly on brushes), and also at a mikrosporiya (cutting deprive, it is the extremely rare).
Distinguish 3 look онихомикоза (they underlie the Russian classification):
- The Normotrofichesky: nail colouring changes, there are strips and spots, but its shine and thickness remain normal.
- The hypertrophic: colour of a nail changes, it loses shine, утолщается and is deformed. Probably partial destruction of a nail from edges.
- Onikholitichesky (atroficheskiya): the struck part of a nail will atrophy and torn away from a nail bed.
On localisation allocate 4 forms онихомикоза (they are used for classification by foreign doctors):
- distalny (nail defeat at free edge);
- lateral (defeat of lateral faces of a nail);
- proksimalny (defeat of the back roller of a nail);
- total (defeat of all nail).
Onikhomikoz begins the subversive activities with free or lateral edge of a nail in the thickness of which there are roundish and polosovidny spots yellowish, is more rare - grayish-white colour. Spots gradually merge with each other, a nail утолщается, is loosened, becomes fragile, crumbles. Destruction process, slowly extending, can grasp all nail plate. At the same time, happens and in a different way: at рубромикозе nails of hands, for example, plates can remain smooth and brilliant, but undergo an istoncheniye or an otsloyka from a bed (the exfoliating part gains dirty-grey colour). Often the disease begins with nail rollers, usually, on hands. Rollers утолщаются, swell and redden, on edge there are silvery cheshuyka, the nail thin skin (cuticle) gradually disappears. The bacterial infection can join process, suppuration development is in that case possible.
Why the fungus strikes not all?
The immune system of the majority of people in a condition independently to cope with a fungus of foot and nails therefore the illness at them either does not develop at all, or is not late. The factors promoting distribution of an illness act on all the others. This, first of all, long carrying of inconvenient footwear (especially made of synthetic materials), long stay of feet in the damp warm environment, injuries of feet, existence of vascular diseases and immunoscarce conditions, advanced age, reception of antibiotics and oral contraceptives. In group of risk professional athletes (football players, athletes, swimmers), serving military of the organisations, compelled to carry inconvenient boots, steelmakers, miners, employees of plants and factories.
How to cure a fungus of nails?
Having noticed fungus signs, do not hope that it will be gone over time - such does not happen. The more long the pathogen lives on your nails, the it is more difficult to deduce it and the worse for all organism. Unattractive appearance here, really, not main thing: long онихомикоз can provoke allergic reaction, weaken immunity or, for example, lead to an exacerbation of available chronic diseases. Be attentive: houses completely to cure a fungus it will not turn out, as only after the analysis (соскоба) it becomes clear, what version of microorganisms delivers you inconveniences (and whether there are they in general). According to these data the doctor can appoint concrete medicine. As a whole, the combined method of treatment when means of local application (ointment) combine with the preparations of the general action accepted peroralno is recognised as the most effective today.
- Local treatment means drawing on a nail bed 2 times in day of an antifungoid preparation (антимикотика) a wide range of action in the form of ointment, cream or solution. Such drugs treat Kanizon (the pharmacological name - клотримазол), Ekzoderil (нафтифина a hydrochloride), Nizoral (кетоконазол), Lamizil (тербинафина a hydrochloride), and also Mikrospor (бифоназол), on sale in a set with a water protective plaster. At desire it is possible to use special anti-fungoid varnishes over which it is possible to put the usual - manikyurny. Means are known: 5 % varnish Lotseril (моролфин), 8 % Batrafen's varnish (циклопироксоламин) and Lotseril. Treatment by a varnish has one essential shortcoming - duration. Fungus removal on nails of hands will take 6-8 months, and on feet not less than a year (and that, only if to operate according to the instruction) will leave.
- Antimikotiki of the general action accept inside. This is Lamizil (and its analogues: Ekzifin, Terbizil, Fungoterbin, Onikhon), Orungal (and its analogues: Irunin, Rumikoz), Diflyukan (analogues: Микосит, Forkan, Flyukostat, Mikomaks) and Nizoral (analogue: Mikozoral). As it was already told above, most effective to combine their application with use of means of local application (ointments, varnishes).
It is very important to remember that except extraordinary survivability in environment the fungus of nails quickly "develops" immunity to the substances entering into the main antifungoid preparations. That is, if the fungus has not been finished the cure or there was a repeated infection, for example through old footwear, treatment by last preparation will not be so effective any more. It is necessary to select medicine with essentially other mechanism of action, for example Mikozan's innovative serum on the basis of a filtrate of enzyme of a rye which possesses high antifungoid activity and thus is not formed by accustoming at a fungus. This serum destroys a fungus in deep layers of a nail, thereby reducing risk of recurrence.
Prevention of a fungus of nails
According to medical statistics, in Russia fungoid diseases meet at every fifth person, in Moscow at all at every fourth. In such situation will think of self-defence by not so superfluous.
- Prevention consists, first of all, in observance of rules of personal hygiene. It is necessary to use only personal belongings (footwear, gloves, linen, towels, basts, scissors).
- At visit of places of public using (baths, pools, shower, sports halls) it is recommended to use antifungoid creams, ointments or other means.
- It is impossible to carry close, inconvenient footwear. It is necessary to watch perspiration of feet carefully. It is useful to wash once a week a foot in hot water with salt with use of 72 % of a laundry soap.