If we ask ten first comers on the street that they know about the hepatitis, at the best every second will remember about Botkin's illness and yellow skler of eyes. And meanwhile this serious disease. And timely competent prevention by time can save life.
The first signs of «military jaundice» it was observed in English armies in Flanders in the XVIII century. Then epidemic of jaundice accompanied Napoleon's wars in Prussia and Poland. And in civil war in North America it has captured more than 45 thousand people.
In medical literature the first mention of a new mysterious illness has appeared in Germany in 1855. Then in the city of Bremen dockers with whom have made inoculations against smallpox a vaccine containing a human lymph have fallen ill 191 of 1289.
During the First World War of epidemic of hepatitis stormed in all at war countries. So, in August 1915 in Russian army has had jaundice of 7069 people. The new outbreak of hepatitis has fallen on the Second World War: cases of mass infection have been fixed in Spain in 1938. But only в1973 to year the WHO Committee on virus hepatitises, at last, has ordered names of these diseases.
Main types of hepatitis
So, hepatitis is the general name for sharp and chronic inflammatory diseases of a liver. Virus hepatitises A, B and C are most widespread in our climatic zone.
Hepatitis A (it still call «Botkin's illness») - that classical "jaundice" which many remember since school. Hepatitis A call the infectious hepatitis known in our country as «an illness of dirty hands», that is being transferred from the sick person to another through direct contact (as, for example, and at dysentery). The virus gets to a human body with the polluted food and water. Indicative symptoms of an illness are: a general malaise, temperature increase, muscle pains, vomiting, diarrhoeia, dull aches in the right podreberye, increase in a liver, dark colouring of urine, icteric colouring of skin and mucous membranes. After the suffered disease lifelong immunity develops.
Syvorotochny hepatitis which is transferred through blood has been called hepatitis B. On the manifestations hepatitis B is in many respects similar to hepatitis A, but in addition on skin there can be an itching rash. After the suffered disease long immunity develops. However at 10 % of adult patients hepatitis B passes in chronic which though it is difficult, but gives in to treatment. It is proved that character of a course of hepatitis B depends on a way of infection. Transition to a chronic form of a disease is more often observed at infection with natural ways (at sexual contacts or owing to household contacts to patients with chronic hepatitis). Curious regularity is revealed: than at younger age there is an infection by a virus of hepatitis B, subjects there are more than chances at the victim that the illness will get a chronic current. Therefore with a view of prevention there is a planned vaccination: three inoculations should be executed with an interval 1 month between the first and second inoculations and 5 months between the second and the third. Such privivochny course provide immunity development for a long time.
Hepatitis C (the old name «hepatitis And In») represents a system HCV infection. Today is the most dangerous version of hepatitis. Statistically, the acute hepatitis passes to chronic hepatitis C at 85 % of patients. At every fifth cirrhosis, at every twentieth - a cancer of a liver subsequently develops. Hepatitis C is transmitted at contact to blood or sexually (at blood transfusion and its preparations, during operations, injections with use of the general syringes, and also at chaotic sexual contacts). The main danger of this disease consists that for the first 10-20 years it can develop absolutely bessimptomno. Inoculations from hepatitis C anywhere in the world do not exist yet.
Alcoholic hepatitis has no virus aetiology and arises as a result of long-term abuse of alcohol drinks.
Medicinal hepatitis - the most rare form of hepatitis, appears at systematic overdose of antibiotics, сульфаниламидов, hormonal contraceptives and anaesthetising preparations.
The popular slogan of health care of the Soviet period said: «The illness is easier for warning, than to cure»? In relation to hepatitis it is applicable for all hundred percent. Here necessary measures of prevention which each person to whom the health is not indifferent should observe:
- Drink boiled water.
- Always wash fruit and vegetables, and meat and fish subject to thermal processing.
- «Wash hands before food» - here one more slogan of Soviet period which has not ceased to be actual
- Never use another's toothbrush, the razor, a hairbrush, a manikyurny set and other subjects on which there can be microscopic droplets of blood.
- Do not do piercing and tattoos by unsterile devices. The virus of hepatitis is very hardy and, unlike AIDS virus, can remain in environment about several weeks.
- Use contraceptives at occupations by sex.
- Do not evade from vaccination.
- If you have transferred once an acute hepatitis, from now on strictly adhere to a diet and appointments of the doctor to avoid transition of an illness to a chronic form.
- Do not neglect annual delivery of analyses of blood on hepatitis B and C detection.