Neil Fedorovich Filatov - was born on April 4, 1847 in the village of Mikhailovka of the Saransk district of the Penza province. His father, Feodor Mikhaylovich, the hereditary nobleman, - the typical landowner of average prosperity. Mother, A.A.Shakhovtsova - the woman strict, with the strong character, grown up seven sons was the head of the family: Mikhail who subsequently has become the engineer, Abram - the accoucheur-gynecologist, Nile - the well-known pediatrist, Peter - the surgeon and the oculist, the father of the known ophthalmologist academician, the Hero соц. work of Accusative of Filatov, Feodor - zemsky the doctor, Boris - the lawyer and early the died Nikolay who was the doctor.
Initial education Neil Fedorovich has received houses. Talented serf person N.A.Morozov was his first teacher on Russian and mathematics. In 1859г. N.F.Filatov has arrived in the second class of the Penza noble institute where three more his brothers were at the same time trained. Upon termination of the Penza institute N.F.Filatov in 1864г. has arrived on medical faculty of the Moscow university. At first he lived together with brother Abram. A room have removed at the tailor; the cold in a room was awful, by the morning water froze, and walls became covered by hoarfrost. In a year have moved to a family Zapolsky, one of which, the young doctor-gynecologist, was the passionate fan of theatre and the first actor on an amateur scene. It has imparted this love and N.F.Filatova. In student's years Neil Fedorovich was the frequent guest of a gallery of Small theatre. N.F.Filatov loved also symphonic music and painting. It has kept hobby for theatre and close connections with actors till the end of life.
The companion tells about Neil Fedorovich's life in student's years on university N.V.Yablokov, subsequently the chief physician of the Sofia children's hospital in the memoirs it. «In intervals between lectures in kurilny and corridors of old clinics on Rozhdestvenka I met by sight the gloomy, high swarty brunette with a cap of curly hair on the head, given to it the non-russian type, always hurrying-up, not garrulous, a little sociable young man Filatov. As I have been surprised, when have met him in a family circle of one young doctor the cheerful interlocutor and the funnyman, good-natured, that infectiously laughing purely children's easy laughter whom people with open soul and quiet conscience, with its expressive big evil eyes shone with infinite warmth can laugh. In total it has made upon me then bewitching impression».
From the university teachers, made a great impact on formation of the identity of Neil Fedorovich, first of all, it is necessary to mark out G.A.Zakharyin, N.A.Tolsky and A.Ya.Kozhevnikov. G.A.Zakharyin's clinic was the closest for N.F.Filatov. N.A.Tolsky has influenced a choice N.F.Filatov of profession of the doctor-pediatrist. Beneficial influence on N.F.Filatov was rendered also by works of neuropathologist A.Ya.Kozhevnikov, follower I.M.Sechenov and S.P.Botkin who was correctly understanding a role of a cerebral cortex in physiological and pathological manifestations of an organism.
After the termination in 1869г. medical faculty of the Moscow university N.F.Filatov worked in the beginning as the zemsky doctor in native Saransk the district, and then, according to the advice of N.A.Tolsky - abroad, in clinics and hospitals of Vienna, Prague, Heidelberg with 1872 on 1874гг. It in the letter to the colleague here is how describes work of the zemsky doctor: «Imagine, I one on all district. On geography on my hands there are 58 thousand people, not including wives and children, and the last mainly and are on my hands». At the same time he marries the daughter of the next landowner Julia Nikolaevna Smirnova. They had 5 children, two have died in the early childhood of diphtheria. Anybody from the remained children (two son and the daughter) has not inherited a medical profession of the father, among them were teachers, lawyers, musicians.
Abroad Neil Fedorovich studied pediatrics, therapy, dermatology, otolaryngology, pathological anatomy and histologic equipment. After return to Moscow in 1875г. and till the end of life its scientific, medical, pedagogical activity has been connected generally with two establishments: children's hospital, nowadays his name, on Bronna to the street and medical faculty of university.
In 1876г. N.V.Filatov has excellent defended the doctoral dissertation on a subject «To a question of the relation of bronchitis to acute catarrhal pneumonia», and in 1877г. with assistance of N.A.Tolsky has been accepted in number of privat-assistant professors on chair of obstetrics, female and children's diseases where has started to give a course of children's diseases unessential at that time.
One for another its large monographs are published: «Dispepsiya and flu at children» (1873), «About some prejudices at education of children» (1876). A great interest of doctors its work «Has involved clinical lectures about recognition and treatment катаров guts at children» (1881). During lifetime of N.F.Filatov it was republished 4 times and has been translated into German and Polish languages. In this management for doctors-pediatrists Neil Fedorovich gave particular attention to questions of differential diagnostics and a balanced diet, propagandising chest milk as a remedy at a dispepsiya at artificially raised children.
In 4 years it has published the second large management for pediatrists - «Lectures about sharp infectious diseases at children» (1885). This work has brought a lot of new in development of such infections, as measles, scarlet fever, diphtheria. Result of work of Neil Fedorovich in hospital on Bronna to the street was unique work on pediatrics - «Semiotics and diagnostics of children's diseases with the appendix of the therapeutic index» (1890). With short intervals to 1902г. six editions of this fine book which has left far behind of "Pediyatrika" of S.F.Khotovitsky and the translated guides of Vogel and Bidert, Genokh, etc. were published.
The thin diagnostician and the talented clinical physician, N.F.Filatov has described for the first time new diseases of children and new forms of manifestation of earlier known diseases: a skarlatinozny rubella (the fourth illness), ferruterous fever (infectious мононуклеоз), the masked malaria of babies, long and bezlikhoradochny forms of flu, chicken pox as an independent disease. It denied a diphtheria role in an aetiology of «a skarlatinozny diphtheria». The work period at medical faculty of the Moscow university (1891-1902), as the director of clinic and the professor of chair of children's diseases whom he has headed after N.A.Tolsky's death was not less fruitful.
In 1894г. Neil Fedorovich together with G.N.Gabrichevsky has applied for the first time in the clinic syvorotochny treatment at diphtheria. From now on N.F.Filatov becomes the active propagandist of treatment of patients with diphtheria serum. Besides, he developed questions патогенеза some forms bezalbuminuriyny a vodyanok at children and has described a new, early symptom of measles (Filatov's spot) but as it has appeared still earlier described by the Russian doctor Belsky, and after N.F.Filatov - the American doctor Koplik (Belskogo-Filatova-Koplika spot).
In 1889г. N.F.Filatov has published «The short textbook of children's diseases», sustained 12 editions, 6 of them during lifetime of the author (the 12th edition left in 1922г.) . In 1900 and 1902г.г. under N.F.Filatov's edition two releases of «Clinical lectures» at which reading each doctor tests true pleasure were published. The sick child is described as if the reader observes it. Thus, N.F.Filatov's merit consists that it has given to Russian doctors the orig
inal managements, textbooks, having eliminated dependence on translated literature. On reception to Filatov brought sick children from different corners of Russia and it quite often left on consultation to other cities. N.F.Filatov had to treat L.N.Tolstogo's children with whom he was personally familiar. Thus, observing at home children from poor families and knowing that it is not enough one drugs, he bought food for patients. Tell such case. During the morning walk on the Maiden field Neil Fedorovich ordinary went in the direction to Prechistenka. Suddenly assistants have noticed that the route of the professor has changed: it began to go in the direction to Arbat. It has appeared that it is invited to the heavy patient, in a family of rather poor writing official. The case was difficult, the patient except treatment, demanded also a food, and money was not. And here the professor came every morning into a butcher shop on Smolensk the market, there to it wrapped chicken, and with this chicken under the arm severe Filatov went to a closet of the patient.
In the lectures Neil Fedorovich gave great value to moral shape of the doctor-pediatrist, considering one of the main issues of medical ethics - the relation of the doctor to the patient. «Starting survey … the child, the doctor should think first of all of at once not to frighten the patient … Always better, having entered into a room of the patient, for the time being not to pay to it any attention and, having been engaged while in the anamnesis, to give the chance to it to look narrowly at the new person …». Unpleasant and the more so painful manipulations N.F.Filatov advised all to make at the end of inspection.
The last five years of life Neil Fedorovich's health has considerably reeled: symptoms of the general atherosclerosis were found, there were attacks of angina pectoris. «I remember, V.I.Molchanov writes to monographs "N.F.Filatov" (1947) one meeting of Society of children's doctors in 1899г. Gathered long it was necessary to wait for the chairman. At last, from Neil Fedorovich's flat have reported that it has a warm attack and arrive it cannot». Despite such serious illness, Neil Fedorovich continued to work still, having a rest only during vacation time and that not completely.
On January 17 1902г. it has come back from Nizhny Novgorod where went on consultation to the patient. Despite the exhaustion caused by a trip, it on the same day, as well as on following, was in clinic, received on the flat of patients. On January 19 in the evening, after return from consultations, Neil Fedorovich has suddenly fainted; the doctors who have arrived immediately have found paralysis of the left half of a body owing to a cerebral hemorrhage or an emboliya of one of brain arteries. The next day to the patient it became better: the consciousness has come back, there were movements in the paralysed extremities. It began to show interest to clinic, medical literature. At doctors is clinic and Neil Fedorovich's all friends there was a hope of his fast recovery. But on January 25 the patient became apathetic, sleepy, and the 26th at 4 o'clock in the morning unexpectedly for being on duty doctors suddenly has died from a new cerebral hemorrhage.
Neil Fedorovich Filatov at the age of 55 years, at the peak of the creative activity has died. With bitter feeling of irreplaceable loss companions, colleagues, pupils, students, patients saw off him on the Vagankovsky cemetery. Buried Neil Fedorovich, it is possible to tell, all Moscow as person who was pride and glory of the Russian medical science, the loving and loyal friend of children.
Descendants чтут N.F.Filatov's memory as ancestor, and a lot of things have made the coryphaeus of domestic pediatrics for its uvekovechivaniye: have founded an award of a name of N.F.Filatov for outstanding works in the field of children's diseases, have appropriated his name of one of the largest children's hospitals of the capital (Garden Kudrinskaya, 15), have erected to it in Moscow two monuments. One of them, put in 1922г. in the territory of children's city clinical hospital No. 13.
Other monument to N.F.Filatov is put in 1960г. in the square going along Bolshoy Pirogovskaya Street, near clinic of children's diseases.
On materials: G.A.Lyskina. N.F.Filatov on a site of the First MGMU of I.M.Setchenov