Grigory Antonovich Zakharyin was born on February 8, 1829 in the Saratov province, in a noble family. His father, the retired captain, occurred from an ancient mean dynasty Zakharyinykh. Mother, nee Geyman, had impurity of the Jewish blood. One of Geymanov was the professor of chemistry of the Moscow university.
In 1847 Zakharyin upon termination of the Saratov gymnasium becomes the student of medical faculty of Imperial Moscow university who excellent ends in 1852. In 1854 it has protected the doctoral dissertation «The doctrine about postnatal diseases» («De puerperii morbo»).
In 1856-59 the young doctor goes to Berlin and Paris where trains at R. Virkhov, A.Trusso, K.Bernard and other medical stars of Europe of that time. In Berlin it gets acquainted with S. P. Botkin. Having returned to Russia, gives a course of semiotics of internal diseases. In 1860 it is elected the professor of native therapeutic clinic, and in two years becomes her director. Grigory Antonovich nearly 35 years - to the most death in 1897 headed clinic.
In 1860 a number of articles of Zakharyin is published, including: «About a rare form of leukaemia», «About a remarkable case in the diagnostic relation of chronic vomiting», etc. In 1886 it has printed the brochure «Kalomel at hypertrophic cirrhosis and therapy». Grigory Antonovich's all lectures on diagnostics and the general therapy have been translated into English, a part - on German and French.
Grigory Antonovich possesses creative development offered still the founder of Russian clinical medicine M.Ya.Mudrovym of «poll method» patient (i.e. the anamnesis). Conversation with patients could proceed both hour, and two, and more long.
The greatest popularity to Zakharyin was brought by development of a question of zones of hypersensibility of skin at diseases of the internal which subsequently has received the name of zones of Zakharyin - Geda, - the certain areas of skin having diagnostic value in which an internal at a disease the reflected pains, and also a painful and temperature giperesteziya are often shown.
The treatment appointed by Zakharyin, was deeply thought over and easy (as it always happens at outstanding doctors, it treated easily). It appointed the few, but well-known to it means. Sometimes it at all wrote out nothing, but gave a set of councils on hygiene, a food, way of life etc.
Professor N. A.Mitropolsky who was personally knowing Zakharyin, remembered such episode. Once to Grigory Antonovich there has arrived from Siberia "very rich and rough merchant let without ceremony to tell about the adventures, brought to an illness". Zakharyin has started to become angry, at last, has not sustained: "Ah you are cattle, - he has begun to yell, - you do and did different dirty tricks, and about them, indifferently, tell! You to beat for it it is not enough! - also has seized for a stick. - If you so live, as lived, - he shouted, attacking the taken aback merchant, - you everyone should beat that and you and will die, if does not leave the nasty customs! To speak with you it is opposite!" Nevertheless, a number of medical instructions has followed, and the frightened patient has sworn that will execute everything in accuracy. Then the lady of high society, to which Zakharyin has entered, having suddenly changed, has addressed in fine French. He has respectfully set her in an easy chair, extremely kindly and has attentively asked and carried out with the greatest courtesy then has told Mitropolsky: "If I meet this lady as the recent merchant, after all it would go anywhere and everywhere to wear me for my unprecedented roughness, - will glorify now my courtesy. And this cattle merchant too to a grave will not forget the visit to me and will precisely execute that it is told it. I with it be polite, as with the lady, it would began to do nothing and would consider, besides, me for the fool".
For its part the therapist of EL Shervinsky in the memoirs notes: "I met Zakharyin on consultations much and I can tell only one that all those eccentricities about which told in connection with Zakharyin's visit, me is thought, have been considerably exaggerated, and sometimes simply invented. I can personally tell that met in professor Zakharyin serious, strict, but the polite and correctly keeping person. Any eccentricities about which told in Moscow in connection with Zakharyin very much, I repeat, personally I did not know. That Grigory Antonovich swore in merchant houses, so it not a miracle, as sometimes any patience lacked to transfer all that absurd with which the house situation of zamoskvoretsky merchants" was full.
Many eccentricities, attributed to Zakharyina, a neurasthenia, irritability are connected with his chronic illness. For many years it was pursued by the persistent pains caused by neuritis of a sciatic nerve which often became aggravated and did not leave it to the death. There were harbingers of an atrophy of a foot. It often compared the illness to the gun kernel chained to a foot of the convict. For the same reason Zakharyin never left a huge stick which always carried with itself, inspiring fear in merchants. Even it had to go to palaces in the long tightly clasped service jacket below knees, a soft nekrakhmaleny shirt (the starched linen constrained it) and in valenoks which it did not remove even in the summer. To get rid of pains, he even has decided on difficult operation on extension of a nerve and has laid down under a knife in private clinic of doctor Kni; having written out from there, it has begun the lecture before students of university words killing on the spot:« Now I on myself have tested, as the surgery has evolved dramatically: improvements of an illness are not present, but there is no also a deterioration …»
It is known, how professor Zakharyin stood up for improvement of hygienic living conditions of Muscovites. He scolded rich merchants, whose children lived in stuffy small rooms of mezzanines whereas huge smart rooms of the house were empty. "The first condition of any successful treatment - satisfaction to hygiene requirements", - was told by him. Grigory Antonovich continued tried to dispel the myth about need to tear off pulmonary patients from their habitual habitat, sending them to mountain or southern seaside areas, propagandised introduction in wide practice of a kumysolecheniye, investigated defeats of lungs and heart at syphilis, and also such diseases, as хлороз, hemorrhoids, formation of gallstones.
Peculiar and deep, "psychological" a method of diagnostic poll in a combination with a stress on hygiene were basis for formation of a special "zakharyinsky" clinical approach. N.F.Golubova, V.F.Polyakova, P. M. Popova, Ostroumov, pediatrist N.F.Filatova, the gynecologist V.F.Snegiryov, neuropathologist A.Ya.Kozhevnikova carry to Zakharyin's therapeutic school and many other.
Zakharyin one of the first in Russia has started to study therapeutic effect of mineral waters in an extra resort situation then in Moscow there were nowadays so habitual bottles with the mineral water recommended from these or those хвори.
It is possible to call Zakharyin the reformer of medical education safely. In many respects thanks to its efforts there were special courses of pediatrics, gynecology, neurology and clinics have been organised: children's, propaedeutic, gynecologic, skin and venereologic, eye, diseases of an ear, throat and nose. From his easy hand A.I.Voytov has started to give a bacteriology course, thereby having begun microbiology chair. At the same time Zakharyin objected to excessive specialisation of training: "That would be both with teaching, and with a science if there were only special clinics if was not such which
would have a main goal achievement of communication of all phenomena of this painful system. Such clinic was and always there will be a clinic of internal diseases". It fairly and to this day.
Neurotic features of character have created to it mass of enemies, however it was not reflected in his medical talent in any way. It did not love both liberals, and conservatives. Has refused an honorary title of the leyb-physician - the right are revolted. Has agreed to treat emperor Alexander III - outburst of indignation in camp left. Attacks went continuously.
But most of all got to Zakharyin for really huge fees which it took from rich merchants and the bourgeois, and also for his profitable houses. Zakharyin with I.I.Mechnikov admitted once conversation: «Here speak, as if I take much. If it is objectionable, start up go to free clinics, and to me after all all Moscow all the same not to cure … Eventually, Plevako and Spasovich for three-minute speech in court tear up tens of thousands of rubles, and nobody blames of them it. And me curse at all intersections! Though priests of our legal profession rescue from penal servitude of notorious rascals and swindlers, and I rescue people from death … I will not understand: where here logic?»
On what the zakharyinsky capitals were spent? About free treatment and consultations in its clinic it is well known. Huge for those times the sum in 500 thousand rubles Grigory Antonovich has offered on tserkovnoprikhodsky schools (however, to it and it have blamed as a radetel of the "reactionary" ministry of national education). Zakharyin's professorial salary went to advantage of needing students, at own expense he sent young doctors to train abroad, allocated funds for the magazine edition, for needs of fiziko-medical society, on acquisition of exhibits for the Museum graceful (nowadays graphic) arts. Having learnt about a distress with water supply in Danilovgrada (Montenegro), Grigory Antonovich sent there money for water supply system construction, for what in Montenegro esteemed him almost the sacred. He endowed the considerable sums and on equipment of medical group for the aid to the Serbians who were at war with Turks.
After especially cruel insult from Zakharyin's own students has decided to retire and in a year has died from a cerebral hemorrhage. When it was broken by apoplectic seizure, he has made itself(himself) the diagnosis (defeat of an oblong brain), has quietly made all necessary orders and on December 23, 1897 has courageously died on the 68th year of life of paralysis of respiratory ways.
Time places everything in the places. Nowadays nobody denies Grigory Antonovich Zakharyin's great merits before domestic medicine. Him call the founder of the Moscow therapeutic school. To it devote books, articles, sketches, readings, to conferences.
Near the temple of the Vladimir icon of the Mother of God in Kurkino, erected in 1672 in memory of rescue of Moscow from invasion of the Crimean khan Makhmet-Girey, there is a crypt chapel which by request of widow G.A.Zakharyina Ekaterina Petrovna was constructed by the academician of architecture F.O. Shekhtel. In a chapel the remarkable mosaic of the crucified Savior executed on the sketch of V. M. Vasnetsov attracts attention. It also is a place of burial of the great doctor.
References to article:
- Korostelev N., Grigory Antonovich Zakharyin//Moscow magazine, 11/1/2003
- Zakharyin, Grigory Antonovich//Brockhaus and Efron's Encyclopaedic dictionary: In 86 volumes (82 t. and 4 additional) - SPb., 1890-1907.
- Zakharyin Grigory Antonovich on a site of the Moscow medical academy of a name of I.M.Sechenov
- "Pikul V. Privy councillor. Historical miniatures" nuclear heating plant, Veche", 2001.