With arrival of bitter cold health hazard increases. During this period nobody is insured from the general overcooling of an organism or frostbite, changes or a failure under ice. Therefore it is important to observe elementary security measures and if there was a trouble - to be able correctly to render first aid.
General overcooling of an organism
Comes, when body temperature of the person under the influence of cold air or cold water falls to 35 ° and below. Such condition is life-threatening the person, and the lethal outcome comes, if body temperature decreases to 25 °.
First aid when overcooling:
- to transfer the victim to a room (if is not present nearby, at least to find a place inaccessible to a wind)
- most to warm (to cover a warm blanket, a fur coat, etc.)
- if the victim in consciousness to give to drink hot tea with sugar, coffee or milk
- if unconscious to cause fast and before its arrival to try to make artificial breath and the closed massage of heart.
This damage of any part of a body under the influence of low temperature, up to an omertveniye of fabrics. Already receive frostbite of people can at ambient temperature-10 ° if long is on a frost. Frostbites are especially dangerous to extremities, it can end even with amputation. The first signs of frostbite - pobeleny skin and feeling of a pokalyvaniye in this place.
First aid at frostbite:
- to transfer the victim to heat, to remove the chilled footwear, clothes, socks, gloves
- the cooled sites of a body to warm before reddening by warm hands, breath, a light massage
- if there are damaged surfaces (in an omertveniye place skin will have a black or cyanotic shade and it is not sensitive to a touch), apply them heatisolating bandage: a gauze layer, then a thick layer of cotton wool, then again a gauze layer, and from above an oilcloth or dense cellophane (instead of a heatisolating material it is possible to use that will be near at hand: jerseys, quilted jackets, woollen fabric, etc.)
- to give hot drink
Both when overcooling, and at frostbite categorically it is impossible: to pound the struck sites snow, to smear them with fat, to immerse in hot water, to pound extremities alcohol.
Happen closed (when skin is not injured) and opened (when there is a wound). The change is accompanied by severe pain, reddening, puffiness in the field of damage and violation of impellent function. To address for the help in fracture clinic it is necessary at the first 12 o'clock after a trauma, differently will be late: bones will grow together incorrectly and for correction it is necessary to break them the second time, but already in hospital conditions. If you are not sure that you have change or dislocation, visit to grumble better not to postpone.
First aid at a change:
- at an open change - to stop bleeding
- to drink 2 tablets of analginum (or any anaesthetic) for prevention of traumatic shock
- to immobilise the injured extremity by tyre imposing (hardly to bandage to an equal flat surface, for example, to a board or a ski and if near at hand anything is not present, it is allowed to bandage a hand to a trunk and if the foot - to not injured foot is injured)
- if the backbone is injured, the victim should be fixed on a firm surface (for this purpose it is possible to use a table-top or to remove a door from loops)
- to cause "fast" and before its arrival not to transfer the victim and not to allow it to move.
If you have failed under ice
When ice on our reservoirs yet thick, can fail any person: the tourist, the hunter or the pedestrian, a way reducing to home. But more often it occurs to the fishermen who are fond of winter fishing and children, playing on ice. That it to avoid, it is necessary to observe safety rules:
1. It is impossible to leave on ice if it is thinner than 7 cm (and for the car - if 25 cm) are thinner, and the thickness of ice decreases in process of removal from the coast and in places where there is a vegetation.
2. The fortress of ice changes depending on air temperature: in the evening it is much stronger, than during the day.
3. Going on ice, it is necessary to bypass dark stains: here ice is much thinner.
4. Gathering for fishing, always have in pockets 2 nails: in case of misfortune with their help it will be possible to be hooked for ice-hole edge.
If at you in the face of people has failed under ice to help and not to fail thus most, it is necessary:
- to approach to an ice-hole not closer than on 8 m, to lay down on a stomach, to creep up and stretch to the victim any make-shift (a stick, a scarf, a belt, a belt, a fishing tackle);
- having carefully extended it on the coast, to check, whether he breathes; if is not present, to make artificial breath;
- if breathes, to throw it with any dry clothes over wet and quickly to deliver in heat;
- indoors immediately to change clothes for all dry, previously having slightly pounded a body warm hands or a small amount of vodka, to give to drink warm tea and to cover.
If you have appeared in water:
- Occupy horizontal situation, having rejected far away all superfluous (a bag, a box with tackles, etc.). To try to lay down all over on ice and at once to be rolled away aside.
- If it was not possible and you have plunged into water on a belt, it is possible to try to tighten feet to a stomach, to rest them against the region of an ice-hole and on a back to slip out on ice.
- After you will appear on ice, stretch hands and feet in the parties to transfer on them a part of weight of the body and thus to distribute load of the big area of ice. Do not rise at all at once - be rolled far away from an ice-hole in that direction, from where have come.