For history of the existence of people has invented a set of ways to influence behaviour and thoughts similar. Throughout all history of development of mankind people purposely and inadvertently "influence" at each other.
Hypnosis was known during ancient times and was used by attendants of religious cults, sorcerers, sorcerers, shamans, fakirs of the various countries and the people for strengthening of belief, healing of diseases, was a component of mystical ceremonies and circus performances. Priests of Ancient Egypt, Greece and India were able to cause the sacred dream intended for treatment of people, suffering from various diseases and frustration. In particular the Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs found in a sanctuary of Izida testify to it.
In 1530 the Swiss doctor Teofast Gogengeym (Paracelsus) has created the theory according to which health of the person depends on influence of the certain magnetic fluid representing radiation of heavenly ph.
The discovery of some hypnotic phenomena has occurred in 1775 during sessions of mystical treatment by the fluids entered into fashionable use by the doctor of medicine of the Vienna university by Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), and is systematised described by his pupil A.Pyuisegyur. All this has been called "a magnetic sleep-walking" and "mesmerizm". Basic provisions of this pseudoscientific theory were:
- Health of a meysmerist - a necessary condition for successful treatment;
- Force of influence the mesmerichsky depends on specific features of the subject;
- Best of all the magnetizirovaniye is carried out in a quiet place;
- The process course is influenced also by doubt, moral influences;
- The magnetic session should be extended gradually from 10 to 20 minutes etc.
On Mesmer's "magnetic" sessions people often ran into hypnotic conditions to which simply it was necessary to pay attention. Actually the doctrine about "animal magnetism", opened by Mesmer and soon forgotten in principle, has revived today under names of the theory of a power information field and biofield therapy.
Radical turn from mesmerovsky magnetism to the hypnosis created a bit later has begun in 1813 in Paris - the Portuguese abbey Faria has developed new receptions for a lulling to slip of patients (look fixing, imperious imperative teams and gestures). For the next hundred years the science has created hypnosis as that. The term "hypnosis" (from the Greek hypnos - a dream) has been entered by the Scottish doctor Dzh. Brayd (1785-1860). In it there was a psychological component of "animal magnetism" (dream), but the theory of fluids has been completely rejected. Then there was a doctrine about a suggestiya (from Latin suggestio - suggestion, a hint). Hypnosis has gained in such look further universal recognition. Special popularity hypnosis was gained in India, after in 1850 by surgeon Dzh. Esdeyl has carried out a set of operations, using it as the unique means of anaesthesia.
The big contribution to development of a gipnologiya was brought at the end of the XIX century by the professor of medical faculty of Nancy G. Berngeym and Jean Marten Sharko, the professor of Salpetriyersky clinic of nervous diseases in Paris. Each of them headed two different schools of sciences of hypnosis. The druggist from Nancy Emil Kue has based the neonansiysky school of a suggestiya considering hypnotic possibilities of human imagination on border of XIX and XX centuries.
In Russia hypnosis was initially considered as a medical method. Researches domestic гипнологов were from the very beginning characterised by thoroughness and fundamental nature. Generally these researches were carried out by doctors (neuropathologists and psychiatrists), to a lesser extent psychologists were engaged in hypnosis.
The father of Russian scientific and clinical gipnologiya the outstanding neuropsychiatrist Vladimir Mikhaylovich Bekhterev (1857-1927) who has devoted to studying of hypnosis many years of the life by right is considered. The physiological stage in doctrine development about hypnosis begins with classical works of academician Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov. It managed to open the physiological nature of a hypnotic condition, to give physiological treatment to some phenomena of hypnosis and suggestion. Doctrine bases about experimental hypnosis were created by V. M. Bekhterev's pupil and Nominative Pavlova K.I.Platonov in the first quarter of the XX century. In the 40-70th years of the XX century big distribution variety hypnosis as has received a version of scenic performances.
In the fifties multilateral practical value of the scientific facts of subconscious perception XX century has been revealed. It has appeared so impressing that further development in this direction in our country began to be carried out mainly in the closed order. Since the end of the 50th years the number of scientific publications on a problem of subconscious perception has sharply decreased and still remains very insignificant, generally shining psychotherapeutic aspects. Despite respectable age of hypnosis, people still are afraid of its mysterious force. In consciousness of general public it has always been connected with something mysterious, supernatural, with paranormal phenomena. And the less we know about something, the more dangerously it seems to us.
As soon as in conversation speech about hypnosis comes, the majority of people start to approve that "they do not give in to it". It no other than a self-defence form from little-known to them external influence. Ignorance and superstition have led to that hypnosis still is understood by many or as magic gift, or as dexterous charlatanism. The mass consciousness has created within centuries an image mysterious, full of secret and mental power of the hypnotist, like the magician or the wizard is irreversible influencing mentality and behaviour of ordinary people. The myth which still is carefully supported by hypnotists interested in it. Secrets of technologies of hypnosis still are carefully preserved by the devoted. The majority of books on this subject are written especially by language of science and are addressed to professional psychotherapists. But even the most authoritative гипнологи in the works do not open all the secrets. Dissemination of knowledge about hypnosis restrains also that its development demands considerable exercises and trainings.
Modern versions of hypnosis
Experts in the field of communications declare that meanwhile to convince people to be at war for the country, to buy laundry detergent of a certain brand or to fall in love with someone, - there is no technological difference. What is the hypnotic influence in a general sense this word?. Whether surely it should associate with a stare and mysterious passes how it still is represented to much? Hypnosis is a set of means of manipulation with consciousness and methods of impact on the subconsciousness, allowing to make change in thinking and behaviour of people. Now distinguish two main versions of hypnotic influences: hypnosis classical, or Pavlovsk, and nonclassical, or hidden, being subdivided on:
- Manipulation (hidden influence or management);
- Direct and indirect suggestion in reality;
- Eriksoniansky (or eriksonovskiya) hypnosis;
- Receptions of neurolinguistic programming (NLP);
- Damage and malefice receptions;
- Zombiing methods.
It is necessary to mention as well other forms of hypnosis: pharmacological (with application of medicines and medicines), narcohypnosis, hardware (under the influence of Radioson or Elektroson type special devices), pathological (as a result of psychosomatic diseases, traumas or poisonings), e
tc., but on them owing to the obvious reasons we will not stop.
By classical hypnosis mean a condition of a specific dream, during which probably directive management of subconsciousness of the person. Classical hypnosis represents:
- Situation in which hypnotised with readiness refuses any control of a situation in favour of the hypnotist;
- Condition when effectiveness and brightness of the images activated by means of purposeful suggestion, representations appears more strongly than real irritants;
- Situation peculiar "the consciousness reorganisations" when functioning its centre "moves" to consciousness of other person and copes efforts of the last;
- "Crowd from two" (Z.Freyd's definition) in which the hypnotised is connected with the hypnotist the relation of identification similar to the relation, connecting members of crowd with the identity of "head". Classical hypnosis is characterised by the extremely rigid behaviour of the hypnotist, existence of a large number of rituals in this connection demands the "official" prevention that hypnosis will be now used more often.
It is directed more often through artificial concentration of attention on any subject, the person or a hand of the hypnotist or on certain monotonous tiring movements and suggestion of a condition of a dream. For it quite low productivity - statistically is characteristic, only 12-16 % of people are gipnabelny (i.e. give in to hypnosis). Classical hypnosis is applicable only in certain situations: in medicine, on a platform. In ordinary life it do not use: here other forms and methods, without "the official notification" are necessary.
For the real practical purposes the nonclassical types of hypnotic influence listed above are used. Everything who is capable to understand human speech are subject to their influence. They and, at first sight, are not similar to hypnosis. As a matter of fact, the word "hypnosis" thus is not said at all, and from outside even to the expert its application to notice extremely inconveniently. At competent use efficiency of these methods aspires to 200 %. Them often consider as ways of irresistible influence by information. For this reason the hidden hypnosis becomes today a part of obligatory abilities and making culture of our society. It with success is used in business, sports, policy, pedagogics, investigatory activity, investigation, director's work etc.